AriSEIA filed a response to TEP's rebuttal testimony in the TEP rate case today. The testimony covered three main topics: the company's return on equity (ROE) proposal, community solar, and rate design for distributed solar and storage. TEP has attempted to have several of our issues removed from this rate case, but we have highlighted this is simply a delay tactic and should be denied. Read the full testimony above.
Arizona Corporation Commission
1200 W. Washington Street
Phoenix, AZ 85007
RE: Community Solar Policy Statement, Docket No. E-00000A-22-0103, Exceptions to Staff’s Proposed Order filed February 24, 2023
Chairman and Commissioners,
The signatories to this letter — a coalition of solar and storage industry partners, including developers, subscriber acquisition and management firms, and nonprofit advocacy groups — have been participating in the Commission’s effort to develop a community solar program since May 2022, nearly a year ago. Our coalition has worked together, and in consultation with other stakeholders, to submit numerous filings that detail national best practices for community solar programs and recommendations for tailoring a community solar program to Arizona. To inform development of an Arizona-specific program, we have also provided a study from Brattle Group regarding the value of distributed community solar projects in APS’ service territory and a study completed by ASU that highlights the quantitative economic benefits of a community solar program in Arizona. We are supportive of the Commission’s effort to make community solar available to Arizonans and appreciate the opportunity to provide information and recommendations to support this goal.
The policy statement and proposed order filed by Commission Staff on February 24, 2023 is misaligned with the common understanding and implementation of community solar across the country. Staff’s memorandum and proposed order fails to address or incorporate any of the feedback and recommendations provided by our coalition throughout the seven month working group process or in our stakeholder comments filed January 27, 2023. Staff’s memorandum includes many shortcomings and, if implemented, would not result in a community solar program, would not spur development of any community solar projects in the state, and would not expand the benefits of solar to families and businesses that currently cannot access rooftop solar.
The Commission should reject the Staff proposal. We recommend the Commission either adopt our attached amendment or direct that the five issues of location, structure, LMI carve out, use of an all-source RFP, and must-take requirements be resolved via an evidentiary hearing. If the will of the Commission is to do neither, we ask that you vote no on the Staff’s Recommended Opinion and Order.
For reference, a list of our previous filings can be found below:
- Response to July 7 Staff Memorandum and July 20, 2022 letter filed by RUCO;
- Draft Program Proposal;
- The Brattle Group study on the value of DG resources in APS territory;
- Response to Commissioner Marquez Peterson’s August 23, 2022 Letter;
- Bill Credit Rate Proposal;
- Response to APS Program Proposal;
- Economic Impact Study conducted by Arizona State University;
- Exceptions and Proposed Amendment to Staff’s Recommended Opinion and Order; and
- Response to Staff’s request for comment on the forthcoming policy statement filed on January 27, 2023.
Decision 78784 directed Utilities Division Staff to work with stakeholders to provide a recommendation to the Commission regarding five elements of community solar program design: “(1) Location of the community solar program; (2) Structure of the program; (3) The percentage of carve out for low to moderate income customers; (4) Whether the program should be included in an all-source Request for Proposal; (5) Must take provision.”
Despite clear Commission direction, Staff’s memorandum and proposed order does not address or incorporate feedback filed by stakeholders. Additionally, Staff’s memorandum and proposed order includes several provisions that stakeholders have repeatedly demonstrated are not characteristic of other community solar programs and would not lead to a successful or robust program in Arizona. It also includes, without explanation, recommendations that were not discussed or recommended during the duration of the working group process. As a result, Staff’s order leaves the Commission without workable guidance on how to proceed with a meaningful program that benefits Arizona communities.
(1) Structure of the Program
Staff recommends that participation in a community solar program be optional for regulated electric utility companies. This is not a recommendation that was raised or discussed during the course of the working group process. This recommendation deviates from all traditional, third-party, community solar programs across the country, and will not result in a successful program in Arizona.
Decision 78784 tasks the Commission with “adopting a statewide policy” for community solar. Per the language within the Decision itself, a statewide community solar program should apply to all Commission-regulated investor-owned utilities (IOUs) in the state: Arizona Public Service (APS), Tucson Electric Power (TEP), and UNS Electric (UNS). An opt-in program for regulated utilities would result in inconsistent access to community solar across the state, depending on a customer’s utility service territory. Furthermore, the state’s investor-owned utilities have already announced their opposition to such a program, no matter how much their customers may want or benefit from it. We recognize that circumstances may differ for cooperative utilities and recommend that they should be permitted to opt-in to the program.
Additionally, Staff recommends that the bill credit for energy exported from community solar programs not exceed avoided cost. The bill credit rate was specifically identified in Decision No. 78784 as an item to be addressed in the evidentiary hearing, not the policy statement. It is premature to determine the bill credit rate at this time, and in isolation from other important program details which have not yet been determined. Regardless, the proposed bill credit would be by far the lowest in the country and would not result in the development of any community solar projects.
Finally, Staff recommends that “[a] participating regulated electric utility company may offer community solar itself or via partnership with a third party.” It is unclear whether Staff is recommending that the regulated electric utility will use a third-party to administer the program or whether this statement is related to community solar project ownership. Community solar projects should be owned by competitive third-party entities in order to benefit Arizona customers through the use of private capital to develop projects.
There are several important components that define the “structure” of a community solar program and are not addressed in Staff’s memorandum and proposed order, including transaction and crediting structure, program size, permitted resources, procurement structure, project maturity requirements, ownership, bill credit term, guaranteed savings, eligible subscribers, the treatment of unsubscribed energy, and all elements of consumer protection other than how the program interfaces with the utility disconnect moratorium. These components were discussed at length in our last filing on January 27, 2023.
(2) Location of the Community Solar Program
Staff recommends that “[c]ommunity solar energy should be generated within a participating regulated electric utility company's service territory.” We agree, and further recommended that individual community solar projects be connected to that utility’s distribution system.
(3) Percentage Carve-Out for Low-Income Customers
The joint signatories have previously recommended a low- and moderate-income (LMI) carve out of 20%, based on the models we have seen created in other markets. However, we can support an LMI carve-out of thirty (30) percent, as recommended by Wildfire. This aligns with neighboring states, such as New Mexico, which have recently opened third-party community solar programs.
Staff recommends that the remaining project capacity not reserved for low- and moderate-income customers be “limited to non-profit (including faith-based organizations), schools, municipalities, extra small commercial, and small commercial customer classes.” This definition excludes residential customers. Decision No. 78583 clearly states that participating customers should include residential and low-income customers. A recommendation that non-LMI residential customers be excluded from the program was never raised during the course of the working group process. Even residential customers who are not low-income cannot access rooftop solar if they are renters, live in a condo, or face other technical barriers to installing solar. A statewide community solar program should include all residential customers.
(4) Whether the Program Should be part of an RFP
Staff recommends use of a request for proposal (RFP) model for a community solar program in Arizona, without providing any details about how such a process could work. As discussed in our prior filings, states that use an RFP process for selecting community solar projects do so in order to select projects based on the benefits they deliver to participants and communities, not cost alone. Community solar programs need not rely on a price-based RFP procurement format to control project and/or program costs because project compensation is wholly determined by the value of Commission-approved bill credits paid to subscribers.
(5) Must-take provision
Staff states that a “must take requirement is not appropriate for Arizona’s community solar and storage program,” implying that utilities should be able to curtail community solar projects for any reason. Consistent with the precedent set in programs around the country, the signatories recommend against routine curtailment of power produced by community solar projects. There should be, of course, permissible instances during which the utility can curtail community solar production for emergency safety or reliability purposes.
Like rooftop solar, community solar project subscribers derive value from their subscription in the form of bill credits only when power is produced and exported to the grid. Decision No. 78583 states, “Direct bill offsets may be considered for subscribers to produce savings in a structure substantially similar to that offered to rooftop solar customers.” If a utility curtails community solar projects on a routine basis, it would unreasonably deny bill credits and savings to subscribers who sign up for the program and substantially differ from the structure through which rooftop solar customers experience savings. Additionally, without predictable certainty regarding if and when projects will be producing energy, it will be impossible to secure financing to develop and build community solar facilities. The signatories are not aware of any community solar program anywhere else in the country that currently allows for routine curtailment by the utility.
Utilities have stated that curtailment of community solar projects is necessary because negatively priced power is available, at times, on the market. In such instances, it is economic for utilities to curtail the highest-cost marginal resource in exchange for cheaper or negatively priced power on the market. Customers benefit when utilities curtail resources with high fuel costs or significant pollution impacts in exchange for cleaner, more affordable resources like solar. IOUs in Arizona do not curtail rooftop solar production, and yet they are able to appropriately manage the totality of resources on their system in order to provide cost-effective and reliable power to customers. We have recommended that a community solar program include a specific annual capacity allotment, and that utilities account for community solar project capacity in their long-term resource planning processes. This will make it easy for utilities to predict the amount of community solar resources that will be available to them and plan their operations and future resource procurement accordingly.
We have attached a proposed amendment below as Attachment A.
 Response to Staff Memorandum, filed in Docket No. E-00000A-22-0103 on July 29, 2022. See: https://docket.images.azcc.gov/E000020412.pdf?i=1673898931456.
 Draft Program Proposal, filed in Docket No. E-00000A-22-0103 on August 26, 2022. See: https://docket.images.azcc.gov/E000020811.pdf?i=1673359840801.
 Study of Community Solar Value Stack in Arizona, conducted by The Brattle Group, filed in Docket No. E-00000A-22-0103 on August 26, 2022. See: https://docket.images.azcc.gov/E000020793.pdf?i=1674487120887.
 Response to Chairwoman Marquez Peterson’s Letter, filed in Docket No. E-00000A-22-0103 on September 9, 2022. See: https://docket.images.azcc.gov/E000021024.pdf?i=1674487120887.
 Resource Comparison Proxy for Community Solar, filed in Docket No. E-00000A-22-0103 on September 9, 2022. See: https://docket.images.azcc.gov/E000021023.pdf?i=1674487120887.
 Response to APS Program Proposal, filed in Docket No. E-00000A-22-0103 on October 7, 2022. See: https://docket.images.azcc.gov/E000021583.pdf?i=1673359840801.
 The Potential Economic and Fiscal Impacts of Community Solar in Arizona, filed in Docket No. E-00000A-22-0103 on November 2, 2022. See: https://docket.images.azcc.gov/E000022238.pdf?i=1674487120887.
 The Solar Coalition’s Amendment and Proposed Exceptions to Staff’s Memorandum and Proposed Order, filed in Docket No. E-00000A-22-0103 on November 4, 2022. See: https://docket.images.azcc.gov/E000022223.pdf?i=1674662938969.
 Response to Staff Request for Comment on the Community Solar Policy Statement, filed in Docket No. E-00000A-22-0103 on January 27, 2023. See: https://docket.images.azcc.gov/E000023855.pdf?i=1677286561482.
 Decision 78784 filed in Docket No. E-00000A-22-0103 on November 21, 2022. See https://docket.images.azcc.gov/0000208038.pdf?i=1673898931456.
 Decision 78784 at pg. 11.
 Decision 78784 at pg. 11.
 Decision 78784 at pg. 11, Line 23.
 Response to Staff Request for Comment on the Community Solar Policy Statement, filed in Docket No. E-00000A-22-0103 on January 27, 2023. See: https://docket.images.azcc.gov/E000023855.pdf?i=1677286561482.
 Staff Memorandum and Proposed Order, filed in Docket No. E-00000A-22-0103 on February 24, 2023, Attachment A.
 Decision No. 78583 filed in Docket No. E-01345A-21-0240 on May 27, 2022 at Page 11. See https://docket.images.azcc.gov/0000206888.pdf?i=1677813967352.
 Decision No. 78583, May 27, 2022, Page 11.
 Response to APS Proposal, Item 7.
Tucson Council Member Kevin Dahl, Solar Business and Nonprofit Community Leaders Highlight Tremendous Opportunity to Grow Arizona’s Solar Industry
Leaders Highlight How Arizona Solar Businesses, Nonprofits, and Consumers Can Benefit from the Inflation Reduction Act & Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act
(TUCSON, AZ) – Today, Tucson Council Member Kevin Dahl joined Frank Velásquez Jr., Board President of The Drawing Studio, Inc.; Tamora Muir, Tucson Resident and Rooftop Solar Homeowner; Adrian Keller, Arizona Program Director, Solar United Neighbors of Arizona; Robert Neifert, Director of Business Development, Solar Gain Inc. and Co-Chair of the Arizona Solar Energy Industries Association’s (AriSEIA) Public Policy Committee to highlight the incredible opportunities to grow Arizona’s clean energy economy, made possible by the solar grants and incentives included in the Inflation Reduction Act (IRA) and the Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act (IIJA). Speakers shared how these investments will cut energy costs for Arizona families, create clean energy jobs, and help grow Arizona’s clean energy economy.
Southern Arizona residents and businesses will benefit from any number of investments outlined in the IRA. These new incentives will help families switch to cheaper, cleaner electricity by offering tax credits cutting 30% off the cost of rooftop solar. Experts estimate that an additional 150,000 Arizona households will install rooftop solar panels specifically because of the investments in the IRA. The IIJA and IRA will also allow for greater adoption of solar by nonprofit organizations, as well as rural and economically disadvantaged populations.
“Even as the clean energy industry has exploded in our state, a lot of Arizonans have been left out,” said Tucson City Council Member Kevin Dahl of Ward 3. “But new solar incentives include a 30% tax credit off the cost of installation, and another 30% for stand-alone battery installation. This will be transformative for all Tucson homeowners and nonprofits, especially those previously priced out.”
In addition to low-income households, the new incentives also address a previous gap in benefits for nonprofits. The IRA bill includes $20 billion allocated for nonprofit organizations to implement projects that cut pollution and energy costs. The bill also includes $7 billion for tribes, municipalities and nonprofits to install rooftop or community solar energy in disadvantaged communities.
“The Drawing Studio is a great example of how nonprofits can better help our communities thanks to clean energy investments,” said Frank Velásquez Jr., Board President of The Drawing Studio Inc. and Founder of 4 Da Hood. “The direct pay assistance will allow us to go solar, and lower energy costs mean more resources dedicated to our programming that lift up Arizonans.”
The IRA also increases funding for the Rural Energy for America Program (REAP), which provides grants and loans to farms and small businesses in rural America that invest in clean energy technologies like solar.
“SUN has already helped thousands of Arizonans save money on their electric bills thanks to solar co-ops, and we’re very excited that the IRA incentives will allow us to expand our reach to both urban and rural communities,” said Adrian Keller, Arizona Program Director, Solar United Neighbors of Arizona.
“Solar Gain is excited for these IRA investments and expects the solar industry to grow following its passage. Having federal, state, and local solar rules change every year or two has presented challenges in the past. The 10-year IRA horizon dramatically improves our business planning and growth outlook, “ said Robert Neifert, Director of Business Development, Solar Gain Inc. and Co-Chair of the Arizona Solar Energy Industries Association’s (AriSEIA) Public Policy Committee. “The most important changes are the tax credit reverting to 30%, and the incentive adders - Domestic Content, Low Income, and Energy Communities. For the Low Income Adder and Energy Communities, new guidance just came out in the last few weeks, but it seems many Tucson and surrounding area projects will benefit from the new bonus incentives.”
AriSEIA is helping Arizonans go solar by helping improve the state, local, and utility policies. We’ve been able to score big wins with Arizona Public Service, Tucson Electric Power, Salt River Project, and the Arizona Corporation Commission, as well as meeting with co-ops and local governments to remove roadblocks and bring the latest technology advancements to Arizona.
With some members of Congress seeking to undermine these critical investments, speakers all shared the urgent need for continued bold climate action. The event concluded with speakers urging the Biden administration to finish the job on climate and implement solutions for pollution to help slash climate pollution in half by 2030.
Watch a recording of the event HERE.
AriSEIA Sends Letter to Eloy City Council to Oppose New Solar and Storage Restrictions
Eloy City Council
595 N. C Street
Eloy, AZ 85131
RE: Opposition to Revision of the City’s Zoning of Solar Generating and Storage Facilities
Dear Mayor and Council Members,
The Arizona Solar Energy Industries Association (AriSEIA) is an Arizona based nonprofit, focusing on policies that advance the adoption of solar, storage, and electrification. We are active at all levels of government in the state and represent organizations throughout the clean energy economy. I am writing to urge you to not revise the City’s Adopted Zoning Map to restrict solar and storage development.
Pinal County has very serious air quality and water quantity challenges. Increased deployment of renewable energy can help alleviate both problems. Solar has no point source emissions and lower lifecycle emissions than fossil fuels. It also uses less water in operations and in its lifecycle than most other electricity generating technologies. Further, solar and storage have the opportunity to greatly benefit Eloy and Pinal County economically. A 25-year fiscal impact summary for a single project reflects the potential to bring in more than $2 million to the City, $12.5 million to the County, and nearly $17 million to the local school districts. That’s a total positive fiscal impact of nearly $32 million from a single project. Further, new companies are relocating to Arizona everyday and many of them are doing so to help meet their clean energy goals. The national Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA) tracks clean energy procurement on behalf of businesses in their Solar Means Business Report and the numbers are staggering.
Please reject the staff proposal. Certainly, do not exclude ongoing projects that have been engaging with the City in good faith from any potential “solar zone.” Any changes should only apply to prospective projects. Instead of blanket restrictions, please review each project on its own merits. Also, please reject the separation requirement as it will needlessly prevent important clean energy development.
I have attached some information on the number of jobs attributable to solar in Arizona, the water usage of solar (operations and lifecycle), and the lifecycle emissions of different electricity generating resources.
Autumn T. Johnson
Figure 1 Life cycle water use for electricity generation: a review and harmonization of literature estimates. J Meldrum et al 2013 Environ. Res. Lett. 8 015031
Figure 2 Water Impacts of High Solar PV Electricity Penetration, NREL/TP-6A20-63011, September 2015 (operational water usage)
Figure 3 Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Electricity Generation: Update, NREL, 2021
AriSEIA and other Solar Stakeholders filed a response to ACC Staff's memorandum calling for comment on five areas of community solar to be resolved in a March policy statement by Commissioners. This is in addition to the various litigated proceedings. You can see the full filing at the link above.
AriSEIA filed the direct testimony of our two experts today in the Tucson Electric Power rate case. We are focusing on community solar and battery storage programs for residential and commercial customers. The testimony and exhibits exceed 400 pages. You can view the entire filing at the button above. TEP is due to file their response on February 15th.
AriSEIA filed expert witness testimony in the currently pending TEP rate case focusing on why the Commission should deny TEP's request to increase their return on equity (ROE). Additionally, several other parties filed testimony about items other than rate design on January 11th. You can view the docket here.
Arizona Corporation Commission
1200 W. Washington Street
Phoenix, AZ 85007
Re: Arizona Public Service (APS) E-32 L SP Tariff, Docket E-01345A-22-0281
Madam Chair and Commissioners,
Pursuant to Decision No. 78317,1 APS was ordered to engage with stakeholders, namely the Arizona Solar Energy Industries Association (AriSEIA) and the Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA), to redesign the E-32 L SP (Storage Pilot) rate tariff to increase customer adoption of the 35 MW commercial pilot program. AriSEIA appreciated the opportunity to provide constructive feedback and generally guide the tariff design process towards a solution that creates value for APS and the adopting customers.
Throughout the duration of 2022, AriSEIA met monthly with APS and reiterated that rate optionality and investment certainty are key components of behind-the-meter energy storage adoption as not all customer loads are created equal, and few customers are able to benefit from existing tariffs using 15-minute interval demand charges. To that end, we collaborated with APS on the proposed volumetric, time-of-use (TOU) rate including a substantial differential between on-peak and off-peak rates which de-risks the customer’s energy storage investment in terms of achieving monthly savings while creating grid support during the utility’s coincident peak periods. Our assessment of the new rate tariff is that it will encourage participation in the pilot energy storage program through market-competitive payback opportunities. This rate tariff may also provide a foundation to develop more value-stacking opportunities for utilities such as distributed virtual power plants or similar grid-response programs.
While the proposed E-32 L SP pilot revisions are a significant step in the right direction, we believe that further alignment with APS’ true coincident on-peak demand periods is important to creating an equitable program. To this end, we issued our recommendation to APS to limit the on-peak hours to Monday through Friday in lieu of across all seven (7) days of the week as the weekend load and marginal prices are typically much lower and do not merit the same TOU price differential. We look forward to continuing to work with APS as this program evolves.
Thank you for considering these comments and we encourage you to adopt this rate in the first quarter of 2023 and to continue promoting more grid-interactive programs for customer-sited distributed energy resources.
President, Board of Directors
1 Arizona Corporation Commission, Decision 78317, November 9, 2021, available here https://docket.images.azcc.gov/0000205236.pdf?i=1670984264693.
Goodyear and Oro Valley Selected by the Department of Energy for $15K Solar Adoption Program
Goodyear and Oro Valley have been selected by the NREL, the National Laboratory funded by the Department of Energy, as one of 12 communities nationwide to adopt the innovative solar permitting platform SolarAPP+. Through the program, the two cities are eligible to receive $15,000 if SolarAPP+ is adopted successfully.
“We’re excited to see NREL’s announcement and the fact that residential solar is receiving its time in the spotlight here in these two cities,” said Autumn Johnson, Executive Director of the Arizona Solar Energy Industries Association (AriSEIA). “Syncing this program with the community’s burgeoning solar market validates all the hard work that AriSEIA and other advocates continue to do. Both in our market and across the country, ensuring that consumer interest is met with efficient permitting processes can really help ensure the solar industry continues to shine.”
SolarAPP+ is an online platform that instantly issues permits for code-compliant residential rooftop photovoltaic (PV) and battery systems. As many consumers and local jurisdictions know, permitting can often slow the process for residential solar and battery installations. Current permitting delays are estimated to increase solar cost by $7,000 per project. With the convergence of increased consumer interest in solar installation and federal legislative momentum, clearing this potential bottleneck of long review timelines and complicated permitting applications is imperative. SolarAPP+ provides local governments, installers and homeowners with a streamlined process to more quickly achieve clean power generation from the sun.
SolarAPP+ has already approved more than 10,000 permits across jurisdictions, including successful programs in Arizona, California, Illinois and Texas. Since SolarAPP+ provides an immediate permit for those communities vetted and determined to be eligible, projects have been installed about two weeks faster under the program.
Regional Clean Hydrogen Hub Develops in the Desert Southwest
Energy leaders focused on developing low carbon economies in Arizona, the Navajo Nation, and Nevada have joined forces to develop a regional clean hydrogen hub in the Southwest. The Center for an Arizona Carbon Neutral Economy, first introduced in May 2022, is collaborating with partners in Arizona, the Navajo Nation, and Nevada to launch the Southwest Clean Hydrogen Innovation Network, or “SHINe”.
On November 7, as its first step in developing the hub, SHINe submitted a concept paper to seek federal funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (“DOE”) for key clean hydrogen-focused initiatives including production, processing, storage, and delivery systems, community benefits, and other enabling infrastructure. Once fully operational, SHINe will help support DOE’s vision of a regional clean hydrogen hub that provides clean energy for the hard to abate carbon emissions in the transportation, industrial, and electricity sectors while maintaining a reliable and resilient electric grid. SHINe will also work to create economic development opportunities in the region.
“A regional clean hydrogen hub focuses on developing a network of hydrogen producers, consumers and local connective infrastructure,” said Ellen Stechel, AzCaNE’s Executive Director. “The SHINe network includes salt cavern storage, heavy duty transportation, and distribution technologies that will help accelerate the use of clean hydrogen as a source of low carbon energy powering the economy.”
In September, the DOE announced that up to $7 billion is available to fund the development of six to ten U.S.-based regional clean hydrogen hubs. Regional clean hydrogen hubs funding was outlined as part of President Biden’s Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act, otherwise known as the Bipartisan Infrastructure Bill, which authorized up to $8 billion for at least four regional clean hydrogen hubs. These hubs are meant to help communities across the country benefit from clean hydrogen investments, quality jobs, and improved energy security. When coupled with other public and private investments in new clean hydrogen production, the hubs are expected to accelerate a nationwide clean hydrogen network and economy.
Arizona, the Navajo Nation, and Nevada are in the nation's sunniest region, with significant available undeveloped land and abundant clean energy resources. Arizona also has the nation’s largest nuclear power plant producing 100 percent carbon-free electricity, and energy providers committed to reducing carbon dioxide emissions. Arizona also has world-class universities, established clean energy and clean hydrogen companies, and a healthy environment for innovation and start-ups. The Navajo Nation is one of the largest tribes in the U.S., has a land base larger than West Virginia, and is transitioning to a clean energy economy. Nevada is an early investor in clean hydrogen infrastructure, which will be necessary to integrate more hydrogen-fueled vehicles. These resources, along with the region’s proximity to California, will contribute to decarbonizing the region and ultimately the entire U.S.
SHINe includes more than forty member organizations with expertise and operations throughout the region, including cities, clean energy companies, gas producing companies, non-profits, transit companies, universities, utilities, and others including the following:
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